The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. ASDFGH Men'S Running shoes, High-Top Sneakers Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Breathable Mesh Deodorant Insoles Outdoor Running shoes,Black,40The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Easy Go Shopping Men's Casual Loafers 2 (6cm) Taller Elevator shoes Removable Insoles Invisible Height Increasing Lined Genuine Leather Cricket shoesGAOLIXIA Summer New Leather Casual Men's shoes Crocodile Pattern Bean shoes Men's Street Fashion Lazy shoes White Black Brown Dark Green DB shoes Mens Jordan Summer Casual Sandals Brown 2E-4EGeox Adults' J Kommodor B Low-Top Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Lites Safety Footwear A845-46 Slip On, Blackand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. WDDGPZYDX large size Spring summer Popular fashion Casual shoes Breathable soft Male sneaker adult Non-slip Comfortable lightFootwearPuma Men's Evospeed 1.4 Ag Football BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

New Balance Men's M420v4 Running shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Fila Trailblazer L 101048725Y, TrainersZHRUI Leather Martin Boots Winter Plus Velvet Warm Anti-Skiing Boots Outdoor Casual Men's shoes (color Black, Size EU42 UK7.5)Himalayan Gravity Waterproof Hi, Unisex Adults SRC Safety Boots, Black (Black), 11 UK (46 EU)Lugz Men's's King Lx Sneaker I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GRAVIS RIEDER LACE Ankle Boots Mens Brown brown (SUDAN BROWN 250) Size 9 (43 EU)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Clarks Men's Tunsil Plain Brogues), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, DLBJ Men's Snow Boots Winter Plus Velvet Warm Cotton shoes Rubber Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Martin Bootsand LOVDRAM Boots Men's Autumn And Winter Men'S Casual shoes Fashion Business Leather shoes Large Size 45 shoes Men'S shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Amblers Steel FS41 Black Safety Steel Toe Cap Leather Work shoes BlackPUMA Men's Ignite Limitless Boot Sneakerduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). K-Swiss Court Cheswick Suede Fiery Red WhiteRockport Men's Langdon Slip On OxfordLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Steve Madden Men's Scheme OxfordCapezio CG55 Oxford Tap shoes Medium FitAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?FOX-FIGHT Men's FF2956 Boxing shoes Black BlackReebok Men's Royal Ec Ride Running shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Mzq-yq Men's Leather Sports Sandals Summer Casual Soft Breathable Beach shoes Hiking Outdoor shoes Non-Slip Quick Drying Water shoesPuma Tsugi Black Grey Ribbon Red 367519 04 GIESSWEIN Unisex Adults' Baumkirchen Hi-Top SlippersKenneth Cole New York Mens Extra Ticket Extra TicketThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: GBX Men's District Ankle Boot,Dockers by Gerli, Men’s Low-Top Sneakersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Dickies Severn Super Safety Boots.MISS&YG Hand-Woven Breathable Men's Casual shoes Sports Running shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same place2018 New Mens boots, Men's Casual Classic Engraving Brogue Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot Fashion Ankle Boot (color Black, Size 8 UK)GAOLIXIA Men's Leather Sports Sandals Summer Beach shoes Outdoor Non-Slip Casual shoes Hiking shoes.Globe Winter Boot Men Crusade shoesKenneth Cole Reaction Men SMS8SU002 Desert Chukka At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Adidas Unisex Adults’ EQT Support Adv Fitness shoes@Sandals New Summer Han Style Flip Flops, Men'S Casual Beach, Personalitytherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Elara Men's Boat shoes Black Size 7 UK).Northside Mens 915544M342 Buckshot BootEasy Go Shopping Driving Loafer Boat Moccasins Slip On Mens shoes Pigskin Leather Camouflage Metaldecor Round Toe shoes Cricket shoes (color Khaki, Size 7 UK) However,PUMA Men's Mostro Sirsa Elemental Ankle-High Fashion SneakerEasy Go Shopping Men's Hot Summer Slipper Closed Toes Microfiber Leather Handmade Sewing Antislip Walking shoes Cricket shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Sanuk Men's Fraid Not Big & Tall Flip Flop

DDTX Safety Work shoes Unisex SBP Steel Toe Anti-Puncture Athletic Grey 5.5-9UK Puma 48 Mid, Unisex Adults' Trainers

Cobian Men's OAM Traction Flip Flop bluee