The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. CCILU Women's Boots, Diffusion Doris Rain BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Kennel und Schmenger Schuhmanufaktur Basket, Women's TrainersCrime London Women's 25364 Black Leather Hi Top Sneakers Danner Women's Mountain Light II Outdoor BootLoeffler Randall Womens Juliette-MGT Mary Jane Flatgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, ASICS - Gelsolution Speed 3 Clay Womens 1993 - E651N1993and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. SJP by Sarah Jessica Parker Womens Olivia Oxford Lace Up Block HeelLa Canadienne Women's Paulina Riding BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Rieker Doris 66 Women's Slip OnBrand X Pachuco Women's Huarache WhitePikolinos - Santorini - W3V4828Haflinger Clog, Blizzard Alibi, Black I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Drew Padua Women's Slip On), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Gentle Souls by Kenneth Cole Women's Reno Dress Pump), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Hogan Women's MCBI21150 bluee Leather Sneakersand Camper Womens Serena - K400314). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Clarks Womens Frida Derby OxfordSalvatore Ferragamo Women's Pacau Patc Moccasins Loafers shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). MOHAI Women's MIKYSIL Silver Leather SneakersDIADORA HERITAGE Women's 20117475290001 Multicolor Glitter SneakersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? N°21 Women's 00119SSS00660062S001 White Rubber SandalsAdidas - Stan Smith Bold W - S32266And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Kenneth Cole New York Womens Caylee Dress Bootie with Block Heel Leather Ankle BootieEl Naturalista - Wakataua - N415Tcarred.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Kennel & Schmenger - Kennel Schmenger Pia X 31 92540680 Black SuedeGeox New Vega B ABX Geox - Myluse - D929WC00043C1000NEWROCK NR M.PUNK005 S1 Black - New Rock Boots - Womens (42)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: SERGIO LEVANTESI Women's MISSBLACK Black Patent Leather PumpsMARC ELLIS Women's 1824006BLACK Black Leather Pumpsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.JOSHUA SANDERS Women's 16210078GBLACK Black Leather Slip On SneakersAnnarita N Women's A557pink Pink Polyester Dress There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeVaneli Panthea Womens Rich Soft Nappy Italian Black Leather Ankle Boot 1.5 Low HeelDr. Martens Womens Serova Core Bex.Stuart Weitzman Womens Slidein Slide SandalKAT MACONIE Women's ROMYMULTI Multicolor Leather Loafers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Frye Womens Shirley OTK Suede Slouch BootFinn Comfort - Calvia - 02807007099therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (New Rock Newrock NR M.373 QS3 Black Boots - Womens).Robert Zur Women's 'Quana' Gunmetal Quilted Leather MoccasinLucchese Bootmaker Women's Gia Ankle Boot However,Rockport Women's SBII Seaworthy IIThalia Sodi Women's Romiina Knee-High Fabric Boot Black I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Aquatalia Womens Kelsey Mini Emboss Suede Loafer

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